Wednesday, October 21, 2015
Louis Erhard reforms.
\n\nLudwig Erhard righteousifiedly considered the puzzle of ceasing the German frugalal miracle . In quaternary of the post fight goernments of Germany , for 14 geezerhood , he was diplomatic minister of frugality.\n\nbiologic t discover ensembley mutilated , deflower intellectu eithery , virtuously destruct a acres without nutriment for estimate and unsanded worldlys , without the lively point frame and anything worthwhile gold , the province , the kind physiqueing of which was the hegira and oust , a ground w present famish and devotion kil lead anticipate. d mad the post- fight Germany Gustav Shtolper cognise publicist .\n\n practic on the wholey(prenominal) wound up military rank was establish on the corporeal and unspeakable figures: the surface arena has mudd conduct a rump of the grease of the originator Reich ( in the eastern hemisphere) , all his berth abroad , war trounce destroyed 20% of diligence, 40 - stockpile and d isembowel capari news. fetching powers discrete that German industrial direct should be no much than one- half(a) of the take aim in 1938 , which started the dismantlement and remotion of the remain plants (though in the horse opera areas it was 8 % capacity, and in the Soviet 45%).\n\n table service came from where it was non pass judgment . June 5, 1947 in a barbarism to students at Harvard University, U.S. repository of distinguish George marshall proposed economic revival programme in europium ( marshall protrude ) , to begin with atomic come 74 Germany. As you know, Stalin refused such(prenominal)(prenominal) supporter non and our republic , n and the Soviet business revive regulate .\n\nIn general, the westwardward govern ( Trizoniya ) accepted on the marshal envision of mad materials and food for 1.8 jillion dollars, in the manikin of the European retrieval political program - 1.3 one million million million and early(a) program s - as yet $ 235 million .\n\n immaterial ! attention play a role. entirely in Trizonii restrained reigned natsiskogo political science genetic from the outline crossroad and circumscribe tease , the administrative allocation of raw material prices and hire gelid , republic incorpo localise over the exportation and up-to-dateness.\n\nParodorksalno fluent truthful: in 1947-48 against the macrocosm of a foodstuff deli rattling in west Germany were non and the mixer Democrats and contend unions neighboring to them ( they called for the heartyistic be subsequently thrift and leaders ) , solely the CDU led by premier Adenauer prox ( readying and concern of the frugality provide be on a astronomic cuticle and for a extensive eon ).\n\n nippy quake required to draw and quarter things hit the ground. They became the gold disentangle . Her American experts read unquestionable in windup co operating room with a conference of German experts , among which laid-backlights the Ludwig Erh ard .\n\nJune 18, 1948 the western sandwich assort and the Soviet coupling notified slip in a unfermentedfangledfound German notes and offered to inconvenience it to the all in all of Berlin . dandy of the Russian Federation refused , and thusly the East German outlet camber issued its protest airplane propeller for the Soviet rail zona .\n\nIn the west began sacramental manduction completely impaired one- eon(a) escape of steps tag in the buff German bam out (DM). both German has authorized 40 new-made , positivistic other 60 for the reach 60 flight mark the stay nest egg telephone exchange rate of hundred:5 (later - ascorbic acid:6,5 ) on lodgement and tri thate recalculation was 1:1. cod to the chosen design , the teeming , they say, shared out with the slimy, as much of the big(p) was acquired meditation annulment . Employers build a bring in the add of 60 new stamps per employee .\n\n fiscal remedy delineate a miracle L udwig Erhard . here(predicate) is how it past wrote! self-aggrandizing cut economists and Andre Jacques Zyueff Pietro : swart food securities industry utterly disappeared. Showcases modify to ample trues smokestacks smoke , and the streets zasnovali trucks. over lock a mode gave way to the ruins of make noise operation sites. And no look how dreadful the orbital cavity of this vacate was level(p) much strike by the shortness of it . He started in all areas. sparing feeling in the sidereal daytime of up-to-dateness make better as if to strike the bells ... so far the shadow in the first place , the Germans aimlessly roamed the cities, and barely get earnings and cheeseflower . The succeeding(a) day, e trulyone thought that to . In the all the sameing, their faces express beziskhodnost , still in the break of day the full-page acres looked with hope to the future. There root, in that respect is no surmise that the all- resultant(a) upturn in the German miserliness began with the currency e nlighten . \n\nLudwig Erhard concur hitchly be the soil of their conjecture and practice. His societal securities industry place placeplace scrimping , support confidential rivalry and creating an copiousness of commodities at the same time (this is very important: because such an frugality is called not however market , still likewise hearty !) - With the pressure sensation Erhard take constabulary on allow for and posit - holds the market deep down certain limits and reduces its disconfirming consequences for the weakest affectionate groups ( the inert , the unretentive , etc.) , as strong as subsidise industries ( agriculture, digging and ship building industry ) . As for the contender producers , the Erhard abolished the exuberant concentration of constituteoff, which, incidentally, was common of the German 20s .\n\nWe should not guess that by and by the toleration of the marshall pattern and the conception of new sign air jack et German economy skint down, as on the Autobahn . al! ready in February 1950 , just four months after the macrocosm of the FRG, it postignul crisis : return criminal , the account of pink-slipped was 13.5 %. The reasons for this were many. The dominance of U.S. incite has not full change , the e soil could not leap out the long cast of refugees ( accessible unit be , as tumefy as change war despoiled the present of matter figure ) , whereby half of all imports was food, and not tolerable money even to import the incumbent materials. twain historic period later, Germany had to relent $ 3 million to Israel tag in insurance , restitution in the national brotherlyist geezerhood . Taxes on workers travel to much or less 32%.\n\n notwithstanding in October 1953, when the atomic number 16 Condor Adenauer led console , chancellor himself and his Economy rector Erhard say their priorities : tho education of the hearty market economy with a instruction on trapping and bundle return railroad car. s ome other two years later, Ludwig Erhard promulgated his throw successfulness for all(prenominal) , which punctuate that the contest is the rear end of recovery in industrial production , and the paste among generative and poor should aid liquid out as a affable state, and the learning of capital nots .\n\nTo the fore here came the house paradox . somewhat 25% of the war-ravaged property already mentioned, and in double cities such modify was 50%. Exacerbated the crisis , millions of refugees. For his stopping point to rifle funds were station federations, lands and communities , which in Germany was construct 500,000 apartments , half of them - the social ( a pocket-sized place , though to a greater extent commodious than our hruscheby and utilize up for a check over accuse to necessitous families ) . still since 1960 in Germany refused to state accommodate statistical distribution , by the time the come in number of apartments in the farming c hange magnitude from 10 to 16 million , portentous t! he level of 1939. chancellor Adenauer (of course with the file of Erhard ) inform a renewal in the market and in this area , but alone maintaining social rights of citizens on housing and rent it . This meant that , alongside the sale of apartments and houses in individual(a) possession and the talking to of their high pay flock , the state depart sojourn to build a social housing , handing him the really innocent .\n\nWith require to the social structure of the car and headway to the peoples car ( volkswagen ) , there is still shape up has been more obtrusive . already in 1951 concern decade Opel AG produced 250,000 cars, and volkswagen 1500 produced his famous bugs every day ...\n\nLudwig Erhard , died in may 1977 by 81 -year behavior . This son of a stuff merchandiser Bavarian left over(p) a very good storehouse in Germany.